## Singapore Math Program

### Example Problems of Singapore Math CPA Approach

Any math lesson including addition, subtraction, multiplication, has a basic CPA approach, i.e with **C**oncrete actors, **P**ictorial illustrations and **A**bstracts.

Students will bedivided into 3 groups, to illustrate the same for easy understanding.

Once the math problem is given, the teacher says **READY- SET- ACTION**!!

The question is, say, 5×2 = ? The acting kids quickly spread into 5 groups of 2 each into each circle arranged by narrating kids. This is the **concrete level** part. These kids illustrate the problem in a practical way by spreading themselves accordingly as per the problem.

The **abstract level** is, writing numbers. This part is, using symbols and numbers to work out the problem. The kids in the abstract group note down their inferences and understandings from the enact of the concrete actors.

### Pictorial Representation of the Math Problem

The basics of this part of Singapore math is understanding the **Number bond** – i.e., understanding the numbers as part and whole. This is done to speed up the students understanding of fractions and rational numbers. This also helps them to develop a strong command over the same. There are 2 basic concepts that drive Singapore math, that we teach at **Thej academy**.

- Whole-part concept
- Thinking block concept

Number bond helps to understand the compensation and decomposition of numbers.

So, when a problem says 8 + 5, a student with a good understanding of the number bond, perceives it as
8+(2+3), breaking **5** into 2 and 3 in order to add convert to the nearest whole number, 10. This way, the entire calculation becomes easier and simpler. The answer **13** can bedetermined in less than 2 seconds.

### Subtraction in Singapore math

**Compensation method** is used to subtract values.

Here’s an example: 6 – 4 = ?

The two ways to solve this simple problem are

- Compensation by adding the values
- Compensation by subtracting the values

In compensation by addition, 6 being the minuend and 4 being the subtrahend, convert any one of these values to a whole number by adding a new value.

i.e., 6 + 4 = 10 *(the nearest whole number, easier to manipulate)*

Add the same value to the subtrahend.

i.e., 4+4 = 8

Now manipulate the numbers to find the difference.

10 – 8 = 2.

There we go!!!

This is the simplest strategy followed in Singapore math to help children solve faster.Similarly, in compensation by subtracting or deducting values, the same value should be deducted from both the minuend and subtrahend to find the difference.